taiga | National Geographic Society ***** Jun 9, 2011 ... The taiga is a forest of the cold, subarctic region. The subarctic is an area of the Northern Hemisphere that lies just south of the Arctic Circle.

https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/taiga/

RESOURCE LIBRARY | ENCYCLOPEDIC ENTRY The taiga is a forest of the cold, subarctic region. The subarctic is an area of the Northern Hemisphere that lies just south of the Arctic Circle. Biology, Earth Science, Geography, Physical Geography This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page.Powered by The taiga is a forest of the cold, subarctic region. The subarctic is an area of the Northern Hemisphere that lies just south of the Arctic Circle. The taiga lies between the tundra to the north and temperate forests to the south. Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and Siberia have taigas. In Russia, the world’s largest taiga stretches about 5,800 kilometers (3,600 miles), from the Pacific Ocean to the Ural Mountains. This taiga region was completely glaciated, or covered by glaciers, during the last ice age. The soil beneath the taiga often contains permafrost—a layer of permanently frozen soil. In other areas, a layer of bedrock lies just beneath the soil. Both permafrost and rock prevent water from draining from the top layers of soil. This creates shallow bogs known as muskegs. Muskegs can look like solid ground, because they are covered with moss, short grasses, and sometimes even trees. However, the ground is actually wet and spongy. Taigas are thick forests. Coniferous trees, such as spruce, pine, and fir, are common. Coniferous trees have needles instead of broad leaves, and their seeds grow inside protective, woody cones. While deciduous trees of temperate forests lose their leaves in winter, conifers never lose their needles. For this reason, conifers are also called “evergreens.”


last great forest: a review of the status of invasive species in the ...

https://academic.oup.com/forestry/article/85/3/329/613586
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Mar 7, 2012 ... This species has been found in open forests and could therefore become invasive in boreal forest ecosystems (Carlson et al., 2008). Canada ... The last great forest: a review of the status of invasive species in the North American boreal forest L. A. Sanderson, J. A. Mclaughlin, P. M. Antunes Published: 07 March 2012 Article history The boreal forest is the world’s largest terrestrial biome, covering all continents in the northern hemisphere. Much research has focused on the effects of forest management and climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem level processes of the boreal forest. However, even though climate change and the increasing rate of resource exploitation are likely to intensify the arrival and establishment of exotic species with the potential to become invasive, the boreal forest continues to be viewed as inhospitable to incoming species and we have little understanding of its invasive species status. We reviewed the literature and compiled information on the current status of invasive species across all taxa present in the North American boreal forest. We found that an increasing number of exotic plants, insects, earthworms, slugs and pathogens are establishing in the boreal forest. Research is scarce and their ecological effects are poorly understood. However, given that some of the reported species represent a major driver of change in many ecosystems globally, we expect that this review will provide direction for invasive species research as well as preventative measures aimed at better understanding and conserving Earth’s largest terrestrial biome. The boreal forest is the world’s largest terrestrial biome, covering all continents in the northern hemisphere between the latitudes of 50° and 60°. Representing nearly 25 per cent of the world’s forest canopy, the boreal forest provides habitats for a wide variety of organisms (Chapin and Danell, 2001) and plays a key role in regulating the planet’s most important biogeochemical cycles (Volney and Fleming, 2000). The boreal forest is also a key factor economically with an estimated value of $37.5 billion (Canadian) across all products extracted from the Canadian boreal forest annually. Moreover, an assessment of Canadian non-marketable ecosystem goods and services was in the order of $93.2 billion (Anielski and Wilson, 2003).




Emerald Ash Borer | National Invasive Species Information Center ... ***** Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive insect from Asia that kills ash trees. EAB was first detected in North America in 2002. Several tiny wasp species are ...

https://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/profile/emerald-ash-borer

An official website of the United States government Here’s how you know National Invasive Species Information Center HOME » SPECIES PROFILES » TERRESTRIAL INVASIVES » TERRESTRIAL INVERTEBRATES » EMERALD ASH BORER Scientific Name: Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (ITIS) Common Name: Emerald ash borer (EAB) Photo: Emerald Ash Borer, Adult - David Cappaert Seven New Screening Aids Released for CAPS Surveys (Feb 21, 2019) USDA. APHIS. PPQ. CPHST. Identification Technology Program. ITP is pleased to announce the release of seven new screening aids for important Coleoptera and Lepidoptera pests. These were designed specifically to be used when examining traps or through visual inspection as part of surveys conducted by state cooperators for the APHIS PPQ Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) program. CAPS surveys help officials monitor and gather data about pests on high-risk hosts and commodities, including pests that may have been recently introduced to the United States. The new screening aids are for city longhorn beetle, Agrilus of concern, pinecone and bamboo longhorn beetles, tomato fruit borers, coconut rhinoceros beetles, spruce longhorn beetles, and velvet longhorn beetle. All of ITP's CAPS screening aids can be found on the ITP website and on the CAPS Resource and Collaboration site Screening Aids page. AgResearch Magazine - Tiny Wasps May Rescue Ash Trees (May 2016) USDA. Agricultural Research Service. Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive insect from Asia that kills ash trees. EAB was first detected in North America in 2002. Several tiny wasp species are helping to control EAB.


Threats to the Taiga Shield – The Taiga Shield

https://thetaigashield.wordpress.com/threats-to-the-taiga-shield/
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An additional threat to the Taiga Shield are invasive species. ... Emerald Ash Borer has not reached the Taiga Shield yet, the rising temperatures in Canada due ... The Taiga Shield is an ecologically important and active zone. However it is under threat everyday. Some of these threats are of our own cause and can be prevented by us. The Taiga Shield is under threat from: logging, The Taiga Shield possess vast forests of trees, which is often exploited for lumber. If sustainable logging practices are not enforced than the Taiga Shield is under threat of ecological collapse without the necessary forest to preserve and support the eco-region. Mining is also a threat to the Taiga Shield, as some types of mining create vast deep shafts which cannot be restored to its original form. Dams are also a threat. Blocking the flow of water disturbs water levels, stops organisms in the water from swimming, and affects the land as excavation of the land is also required. An additional threat to the Taiga Shield are invasive species. Invasive species such as the Emerald Ash Borer Beetle are significant threats to the Taiga Shield. These beetles destroy vast swaths of forest that is unaccustomed to surviving. Although the Emerald Ash Borer has not reached the Taiga Shield yet, the rising temperatures in Canada due to climate change will increase the likelihood of the Ash Borer will reach the Taiga Shield. Another threat to the Taiga Shield is pollution. Some essential waterways in the Taiga Shield have been contaminated poisoning some rivers and the organisms inside. Acid rain which is created when rain clouds are contaminated with high levels of carbon dioxide can damage some areas of the Taiga Shield and other organisms. Carbon dioxide levels have been on the rise with the air pollution created by human beings. An additional concern towards the Taiga Shield is hunting legal or illegal. Many organisms in the Taiga Shield are endangered such as the grizzly bear and hunting causes numerous problems. The illegal hunting of the endangered species itself, or in some cases the legal hunting of the endangered species prey. With less prey, the endangered species will have less food to support itself which may result in a decrease to an already low population. Another intriguing threat is climate change to specific animals. With rising heat levels the internal biological clock, or the circadian clock but on a much longer span, are influenced and changed because of the rise in heat. For example some salmon spawn based on the level of heat and with rising temperature then salmon will be unable to spawn. Additionally high temperatures results in evaporation and lower water levels which makes it difficult for salmon to return to their spawning grounds and considering the fact that salmon die once they finish spawning, a population crash is inevitable. 



Climate warming and the arrival of potentially invasive species into ...

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00300-018-2341-2
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Jun 1, 2018 ... We assess the presence of introduced plant species and thei. ... species into boreal forest and tundra in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. Climate warming and the arrival of potentially invasive species into boreal forest and tundra in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada Alex Kent, Taly Dawn Drezner & Richard Bello  Polar Biology volume 41, pages2007–2022(2018)Cite this article As the extremity of Arctic climate lessens with global warming, the risk of invasion increases. We assess the presence of introduced plant species and their persistence (since the previous survey) in a Canadian subpolar site on the Hudson Bay with a history of human introductions from large-scale grain inputs. Widespread sampling was done to locate all introduced plant species in the Churchill, MB, Canada area. We quantified edaphic variations through soil sampling, and the effect of aspect on introduced species’ richness, cover, and height. At the regional scale, species life history traits and climate envelopes (average and variability of climate in a native range) were established to determine if persistent plant species had similar climate requirements. We found that despite statistically significant warming and increased precipitation, the number of introduced plant species in sub-Arctic Churchill declined from 80 to 36 between the 1989 and 2013 sampling periods. We found that introduced species favor locally warmer, human-disturbed sites with above average soil nutrients. The plant species that remained in Churchill since the 1989 survey compared to those that did not persist are better able to tolerate colder temperatures and have wider, more variable climate envelopes. The decline in introduced species is likely linked to changes in grain shipment inputs. Many of the introduced species recorded in 1989 may have only existed through constant seed subsidies from imports, suggesting that most species have not yet been successful in the absence of human modification. Although the number of introduced plants has decreased, we suggest that continuous disturbance is no longer required for some introduced species to persist suggesting that a climate threshold may have been crossed for some species. One introduced species (Taraxacum officinale, common dandelion) has spread to areas that have not been modified by humans and is now growing in two undisturbed locations. Its current distribution outside disturbed areas does not yet warrant the distinction of invasive at this time. The findings of this study suggest that in the Canadian Arctic, if disturbance and nutrient enrichment are reduced, the potential for introduced plants to establish and possibly become invasive is still limited but will likely change as warming continues.





Taiga Biomes ***** Canada. Northern Contiguous United States. Northern Norway. Sweden ... There is many species that are invasive to the Taiga region. mostly fishes like the ...

https://www.arcgis.com/apps/MapJournal/index.html?appid...

Canada. Northern Contiguous United States. Northern Norway. Sweden ... There
is many species that are invasive to the Taiga region. mostly fishes like the ...





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